Kamis, 05 Januari 2012



Philosophy is a philosophy of life a person or group of persons which is the basic concept of life mcngenai aspired. Philosophy is also interpreted as an attitude of someone who is conscious and mature in thinking of everything in depth and would like to see in terms of a broad and thorough with all relationships.
The characteristics of thinking filosfi:
1. Thinking by using a high-disciplinary thinking.
2. Thinking systematically.
3. Develop a scheme conception, and
4. Thorough.
Four issues to be solved by philosophy is:
1. What exactly is the nature of life? This question was studied by Metaphysics
2. What can I know? These problems are peeled by epistemology.
3. Do men? This issue is discussed olen Atropologi Philosophy.
Some of the teaching philosophy that has been filled and stored in the repertoire of science are:
1. Materialism, which argues that kenyatan which is actually the physical universe. This flow does not acknowledge the existence of spiritual reality. Materialism has two variations of dialectical materialism and humanistic materialism.
2. Idealism is argued that the nature of reality the world is the idea of ​​a spiritual nature or intelegesi. Variations of this flow is subjective idealism and objective idealism.
3. Realism. This stream is argued that the world of inner / spiritual and material world murupakan hakitat original and timeless.
4. Pragmatism is the philosophy that understands the flow of not being absolute (absolute) is not doctrinaire but relatively dependent on the ability minusia.
Benefits of philosophy in life is:
1. As a basis for action.
2. As a basis for making decisions.
3. To reduce misunderstanding and conflict.
4. To be on the alert to face the ever changing world situation.

Education is an effort to develop human potential learners both physical potential copyright potency, taste, or karsanya, so that potential becomes real and can function in the course of his life. Basic education is universal ideals of humanity. Education aims to prepare a personal balance, unity. organic, harmonious, dynamic. to achieve the goal of living humanity. Educational philosophy is the philosophy used in the study of educational problems.
Some schools of philosophy of education;
1. Educational philosophy of progressivism. supported by the philosophy of pragmatism.
2. Educational philosophy of essentialism. supported by the idealism and realism; and
3. Perenialisme educational philosophy supported by idealism.
Progressivism believes there is no general theory of reality. Experience according to progressivism is dynamic and temporal; lit. never arrive at the most extreme, and pluralistic. According to progressivism, the value continues to grow because of new experiences among individuals with values ​​that have been stored in kehudayaan. Learning works to: enhance the standard of social life is very complex. A good curriculum is an experimental curriculum, the curriculum at any time can be tailored to the needs.
3. Essentialism AND PERENIALISME

Essentialism argues that the world is controlled by the order that no reproach to rule the world and its contents and without reproach, too. Essentialism is supported by modern idealism that has a systematic view of the universe in which humans are.
Essentialism is also supported by subjective idealism hahwa argue that the universe is essentially a soul / spirit and all things that are real in the spiritual sense. Realism argues that the quality of value depends on what and how it is, if it is lived by a particular subject, and then depending also on the subject.
According to idealism, the value will be true (there) or realized by any person when the person trying to learn or adjust to something that shows the value to him and that person had the emotional experience of understanding and feeling happy not happy about the value tersehut. Menunut realism, thanks to the unification of knowledge is formed tententu stimulus and response into a single unit. Meanwhile, according to idealism, knowledge arises because of the relationship between the small world with big world. Essentialism argues that education must be relying on the values ​​that have been proven dependability, toughness, and strength of all time.
Perenialisme held that to restore the chaotic state it is today, way to go is back to the general principles that have been tested. According to. perenialisme, the reality we face is a world with all its contents. Perenialisme view hahwa issue is the question of spiritual values, because human nature is in his soul. Something must be judged to be beautiful can be considered good.
Some figures perenialisme view of education:
1. The ideal education program should be based on the principles of the desire, willingness, and reason (Plato)
2. Perkemhangan mind is the focal point of attention to the philosophy of education as a means to achieve it (Aristotle)
3. Education is the leading capabilities that are still active or sleeping in order to become real. (Thomas Aquinas)
The fundamental norms of education according to J. Maritain was the love of truth, love, kindness and fairness, simplicity and open-ended nature of existence and the love of cooperation.

National education is a system that includes the implementation of educational practice theory that stands on the runway and animated by the philosophy of the nation in question is devoted to the nation in order to realize the national ideals.
Indonesian national education is a system that regulates and determines the theory and implementation of education
practices that stood on the runway and animated by philosophy of Indonesia which is dedicated for the sake of nation and state reasoning Indonesia in order to achieve national goals Indonesia.
Indonesia's national philosophy of education is a system that regulates and determines the theory and practice of education which stands on the foundation and philosophy of life inspired by the "Pancasila" which is dedicated for the sake of the nation and the country of Indonesia in an effort to realize the ideals of the nation and the country of Indonesia.

Philosophy of Education

Is applied from a general philosophy, and so for discussing philosophy will depart from the philosophy of education.
Educational philosophy basically uses philosophy and way of working will use the results of philosophy, which formed as the result of human thought about reality, knowledge, and values.
In philosophy there are various schools / streams, such as materialism, idealism, realism, pragmatism, and others. Because education is an applied philosophy of philosophy, while philosophy varied flow, then in any philosophy of education we will find a variety of streams, at least as much flow
lack of philosophy itself.
Brubacher (1950) classify educational philosophy in two major groups, namely
a. Educational philosophy of "progressive"
Powered by philosophical pragmatism of John Dewey, and the romantic naturalism of Roousseau
b. Educational philosophy of "Conservative".
Inspired by the philosophy of idealism, realism, humanism (rational humanism), and supernaturalism or religious realism.

Philosophies essentialism philosophy of education delivery, perenialisme, and so on.

The following streams in the philosophy of education:
1. Idealism Philosophy of Education considers that the ultimate reality is spirit, not matter, not physical. The knowledge gained through our senses is uncertain and incomplete. This stream is looking at the value is fixed and unchanging, like what is said to be good, true, beautiful, bad fundamentally unchanged from generation to generation. The characters in this genre are: Plato, Elea and Hegel, Emanuael Kant, David Hume, Al Ghazali

2. Educational Philosophy of Realism is the philosophy which views reality dualitis. Realism argues that the nature of reality is made up of the physical world and spiritual world. Realism divide reality into two parts, namely the subject who recognize and know on one hand and on the other is the existence of reality outside of man, which can be used as objects of human knowledge. Some realism wing figures: Aristotle, Johan Amos Comenius, William Mc Gucken, Francis Bacon, John Locke, Galileo, David Hume, John Stuart Mill.

3. Philosophy of Education Materialism holds that the essence of realism is the material, not spiritual, spiritual or supernatural. Some figures that wing materialism: Demokritos, Ludwig Feurbach

4. Philosophy Education Pragmatism is seen as a genuine American philosophy. But in fact originate in British empiricism philosophy, which argues that man can know what is human nature. Some leaders who embrace this philosophy is: sandre Charles Peirce, William James, John Dewey, Heracleitos.

5. Educational Philosophy of Existentialism focuses on the experiences of individuals. In general, existentialism
emphasis creative options, the subjectivity of human experience and the concrete actions of human existence over any rational scheme for the human essence or reality. Some figures in this genre: Jean Paul Satre, Soren Kierkegaard, Martin Buber, Martin Heidegger, Karl Jasper, Gabril Marcel, Paul Tillich

6. Philosophy of Educational progressivism is not a philosophy or school of philosophy of building a stand-alone, but a movement and association that was founded in 1918. This stream is argued that the right knowledge at the present time may not be true in the future. Education must focus on children rather than focusing on a teacher or cargo area. Some figures in this genre: George Axtelle, William O. Stanley, Ernest Bayley, Thomas B. Lawrence, Frederick C. Neff

7. Philosophy of Education essentialism essentialism is a conservative educational philosophy which was originally formulated as a critique on progressive trends in schools. They argue that the progressive movement has destroyed the intellectual standards and morals among young people. Some figures in this genre: William C. Bagley, Thomas Briggs, Frederick Breed and Isac L. Kandell.

8. Philosophy of Education Perenialisme It is a stream in education who were born in the twentieth century. Perenialisme born as a reaction against progressive education. They opposed the view of progressivism that emphasizes change and something new. Perenialisme look at the situation today's world full of chaos, uncertainty, and disorder, especially in the life of the moral, intellectual and socio
cultural. Therefore there should be efforts to secure these irregularities, namely by using the returned values ​​or principles of general outlook on life has become a solid, strong and tested. Several prominent supporters of this idea are: Robert Maynard Hutchins and Adler ortimer.

9. Philosophy of Education is a continuation of the Reconstructionist movement progressivism. This movement was born based on an assumption that the progressives just thinking about and involved with community issues that exist today. Reconstructionist pioneered by Count George and Harold Rugg in 1930, wants to build a new society, a decent and fair society. Some figures in this genre: Caroline Pratt, Count George, Harold Rugg.

The phenomenon of "Living It Forward"
Every person, would want a happy life. One of them that live better than before or can be called more advanced life. The advanced life support or can be realized through education.
Explanation associated with the above, in my opinion the appropriate educational philosophy or lead to the establishment of an advanced life that is a conservative philosophy that is supported by an idealism, rationalism (reality). That is because the philosophy of education leads to the result of human thought about reality, knowledge, and values ​​as mentioned above.
Thus, schools of philosophy that fit and in accordance with the education that leads to life forward in my mind that progressivism educational philosophy (focusing on students). But it will be even better if all the above philosophy
can be mutually complement.