Is applied from a general philosophy, and so for discussing philosophy will depart from the philosophy of education.
Educational philosophy basically uses philosophy and way of working will use the results of philosophy, which formed as the result of human thought about reality, knowledge, and values.
In philosophy there are various schools / streams, such as materialism, idealism, realism, pragmatism, and others. Because education is an applied philosophy of philosophy, while philosophy varied flow, then in any philosophy of education we will find a variety of streams, at least as much flowlack of philosophy itself.
Brubacher (1950) classify educational philosophy in two major groups, namely
a. Educational philosophy of "progressive"
Powered by philosophical pragmatism of John Dewey, and the romantic naturalism of Roousseau
b. Educational philosophy of "Conservative".
Inspired by the philosophy of idealism, realism, humanism (rational humanism), and supernaturalism or religious realism.
Philosophies essentialism philosophy of education delivery, perenialisme, and so on.
The following streams in the philosophy of education:
1. Idealism Philosophy of Education considers that the ultimate reality is spirit, not matter, not physical. The knowledge gained through our senses is uncertain and incomplete. This stream is looking at the value is fixed and unchanging, like what is said to be good, true, beautiful, bad fundamentally unchanged from generation to generation. The characters in this genre are: Plato, Elea and Hegel, Emanuael Kant, David Hume, Al Ghazali
2. Educational Philosophy of Realism is the philosophy which views reality dualitis. Realism argues that the nature of reality is made up of the physical world and spiritual world. Realism divide reality into two parts, namely the subject who recognize and know on one hand and on the other is the existence of reality outside of man, which can be used as objects of human knowledge. Some realism wing figures: Aristotle, Johan Amos Comenius, William Mc Gucken, Francis Bacon, John Locke, Galileo, David Hume, John Stuart Mill.
3. Philosophy of Education Materialism holds that the essence of realism is the material, not spiritual, spiritual or supernatural. Some figures that wing materialism: Demokritos, Ludwig Feurbach
4. Philosophy Education Pragmatism is seen as a genuine American philosophy. But in fact originate in British empiricism philosophy, which argues that man can know what is human nature. Some leaders who embrace this philosophy is: sandre Charles Peirce, William James, John Dewey, Heracleitos.
5. Educational Philosophy of Existentialism focuses on the experiences of individuals. In general, existentialism emphasis creative options, the subjectivity of human experience and the concrete actions of human existence over any rational scheme for the human essence or reality. Some figures in this genre: Jean Paul Satre, Soren Kierkegaard, Martin Buber, Martin Heidegger, Karl Jasper, Gabril Marcel, Paul Tillich
6. Philosophy of Educational progressivism is not a philosophy or school of philosophy of building a stand-alone, but a movement and association that was founded in 1918. This stream is argued that the right knowledge at the present time may not be true in the future. Education must focus on children rather than focusing on a teacher or cargo area. Some figures in this genre: George Axtelle, William O. Stanley, Ernest Bayley, Thomas B. Lawrence, Frederick C. Neff
7. Philosophy of Education essentialism essentialism is a conservative educational philosophy which was originally formulated as a critique on progressive trends in schools. They argue that the progressive movement has destroyed the intellectual standards and morals among young people. Some figures in this genre: William C. Bagley, Thomas Briggs, Frederick Breed and Isac L. Kandell.
8. Philosophy of Education Perenialisme It is a stream in education who were born in the twentieth century. Perenialisme born as a reaction against progressive education. They opposed the view of progressivism that emphasizes change and something new. Perenialisme look at the situation today's world full of chaos, uncertainty, and disorder, especially in the life of the moral, intellectual and socio cultural. Therefore there should be efforts to secure these irregularities, namely by using the returned values or principles of general outlook on life has become a solid, strong and tested. Several prominent supporters of this idea are: Robert Maynard Hutchins and Adler ortimer.
9. Philosophy of Education is a continuation of the Reconstructionist movement progressivism. This movement was born based on an assumption that the progressives just thinking about and involved with community issues that exist today. Reconstructionist pioneered by Count George and Harold Rugg in 1930, wants to build a new society, a decent and fair society. Some figures in this genre: Caroline Pratt, Count George, Harold Rugg.
The phenomenon of "Living It Forward"
Every person, would want a happy life. One of them that live better than before or can be called more advanced life. The advanced life support or can be realized through education. Explanation associated with the above, in my opinion the appropriate educational philosophy or lead to the establishment of an advanced life that is a conservative philosophy that is supported by an idealism, rationalism (reality). That is because the philosophy of education leads to the result of human thought about reality, knowledge, and values as mentioned above.
Thus, schools of philosophy that fit and in accordance with the education that leads to life forward in my mind that progressivism educational philosophy (focusing on students). But it will be even better if all the above philosophy can be mutually complement.
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